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Node js Tutorial PDF

Node js Tutorial PDF

Setting Up Your Development Environment

Before you can start building Node.js applications, you'll need to set up your development in node.js environment. Here are the steps to follow:

Step 1: Install Node.js

The first step is to install Node.js on your computer. You can download the latest version of Node.js from the official website. Choose the appropriate version for your operating system, and follow the installation instructions.

Step 2: Check Your Node.js Installation

Once you've installed Node.js, you can check that it's working correctly by opening a command prompt or terminal window and typing the following command:

node -v

This should display the version of Node.js that you installed.

Step 3: Install a Code Editor

Next, you'll need a code editor to write and edit your Node.js code. There are many code editors available, but some popular options include Visual Studio Code, Atom, and Sublime Text.

Step 4: Create a New Project

Once you have a code editor installed, you can create a new project for your Node.js application. Open your code editor and create a new folder for your project. Then, create a new file and save it with a .js extension. This will be the main file for your Node.js application.

Congratulations! You've now set up your development environment and are ready to start building Node.js applications. In the next section, we'll cover the fundamentals of Node.js, including modules, callbacks, and event-driven programming.

Node.js Fundamentals

In this section, we'll cover the core concepts of Node.js, including modules, callbacks, and event-driven programming.


Node.js uses modules to organize code and make it more modular and reusable. A module is a separate file that contains a piece of functionality that can be imported and used in other parts of your code. To use a module, you need to use the require function to import it.

For example, let's say you have a file called myModule.js that contains a function called add. You could use this function in another file like this:

const myModule = require('./myModule');
console.log(myModule.add(2, 3)); // Output: 5

Callback function

Node.js is event-driven and uses callbacks to handle asynchronous operations. A callback is a function that's passed as an argument to another function and is called when that function has completed its work.

For example, let's say you have a function called getUser that retrieves a user from a database. This function takes a callback as an argument, which is called when the user has been retrieved.

function getUser(userId, callback) {*
 *// Code to retrieve user from database*
 *const user = { id: userId, name: 'John' };*

*getUser(1, function(user) {*
 *console.log(user); // Output: { id: 1, name: 'John' }*

Event-Driven Programming

In Node.js, everything is based on events. An event is a signal that indicates that something has happened, such as a button click or a file being saved. Node.js uses an event-driven architecture, which means that it listens for events and responds to them.

To handle events in Node.js, you use the EventEmitter class. This class provides a set of methods for registering listeners for specific events and emitting events when they occur.

const EventEmitter = require('events');*

*class MyEmitter extends EventEmitter {}*

*const myEmitter = new MyEmitter();*

*myEmitter.on('event', function() {*
 *console.log('An event occurred!');*

*myEmitter.emit('event'); // Output: An event occurred!

These are just some of the core concepts of Node.js. In the next section, we'll cover how to build web applications with Node.js, including creating a basic server and handling HTTP server requests.

Building Web Applications with Node.js

Node.js is a popular choice for building web applications due to its high performance and event-driven architecture. In this section, we'll cover the basics of building a web application with Node.js, including creating a basic server and handling HTTP requests.

Creating a Basic Server

To create a web server with Node.js version, you can use the built-in http module. The http module provides a set of methods for creating and running a HTTP server in node.js.

Here's an example of creating a basic server:

const http = require('http');*

*const server = http.createServer(function(req, res) {*
 *res.write('Hello, World!');*

*server.listen(3000, function() {*
 *console.log('Server running on port 3000');*

In this example, we create a server that listens on port 3000. When a request is made to the server, it responds with the text "Hello, World!".

Handling HTTP Requests

To handle HTTP requests in Node.js, you can use the built-in http module along with the request and response objects. The request object represents the incoming HTTP request, while the response object represents the outgoing HTTP response.

Here's an example of handling an HTTP request:

const http = require('http');*

*const server = http.createServer(function(req, res) {*
 *if (req.url === '/') {*
 *res.write('Hello, World!');*
 *} else if (req.url === '/about') {*
 *res.write('About Us');*
 *} else {*
 *res.write('Page Not Found');*

*server.listen(3000, function() {*
 *console.log('Server running on port 3000');*

In this example, we handle three different HTTP requests: the root URL ("/"), the "/about" URL, and all other URLs. Depending on the URL requested, the server responds with different text.

These are just the basics of building web applications with Node.js. In the next section, we'll cover how to work with databases in Node.js, including connecting to a database and performing CRUD operations.

Advanced Topics in Node.js

Node.js is a powerful and versatile platform, and there are many advanced topics that you can explore to take your skills to the next level. In this section, we'll cover some of the most important advanced topics in Node.js, including working with streams, using middleware, and deploying Node.js applications.

Working with Streams

Streams are a powerful feature of Node.js that allow you to efficiently process large amounts of data. In Node.js, a stream is an abstract interface for working with data flowing from a source to a destination. The source and destination can be a file, a network socket, or any other data source or destination.

Here's an example of reading a file using a stream:

const fs = require('fs');

const stream = fs.createReadStream('file.txt');

stream.on('data', function(chunk) {

stream.on('end', function() {
 console.log('File read complete');

In this example, we create a readable stream from a file called "file.txt". We then listen for the 'data' event, which is emitted whenever data is available to read from the stream. When data is available, we print it to the console. Finally, we listen for the 'end' event, which is emitted when the stream has finished reading.

Using Middleware

Middleware is a powerful concept in Node.js that allows you to modularize your code and add functionality to your applications in a reusable way. Middleware functions are functions that have access to the request and response objects and can modify them, add new properties to them, or perform other actions.

Here's an example of using middleware to log requests:

function logger(req, res, next) {
 console.log(`${req.method} ${req.url}`);


In this example, we define a middleware function called 'logger' that logs the request method and URL to the console. We then use the app.use method to add the middleware function to our application.

Deploying Node.js Applications

Deploying Node.js applications can be a complex topic, but there are many tools and services available to help simplify the process. Some popular options for deploying Node.js web include Heroku, Amazon Web Services, and Microsoft Azure.

When deploying a Node.js application, it's important to consider factors such as scalability, security, and performance. You may also need to configure load balancing, caching, and other advanced features depending on your application's requirements.

These are just a few of the advanced topics in Node.js that you can explore to take your skills to the next level. With Node.js, the possibilities are endless!

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Related video


What are some popular Node.js frameworks?

There are many popular Node.js frameworks, including Express, Koa, Hapi, and NestJS. These frameworks provide a set of tools and conventions to help you build web applications quickly and efficiently.

How do I install Node.js?

You can download and install Node.js from the official Node.js website (https://nodejs.org/en/). Node.js comes with a package manager called npm, which you can use to install additional packages and libraries.https://nodejs.org/en/

Can I use Node.js with a database?

Yes, Node.js can be used with many different types of databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, and more. There are many libraries and tools available to help you connect to and work with databases in Node.js.

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Ruslan Osipov
Author: Ruslan Osipov